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obálka

Cervical spine trauma

Obsah

1. Introduction

2. History

2.1. Ancient history

2.2. The Middle Ages

2.3. Renaissance

2.4. Major discoveries

2.5. Evolution of treatment

2.6. Posterior cervical spine fixation

2.7. Anterior cervical spine fixation

2.8. Atlantoaxial fusion

2.9. Direct osteosynthesis of the dens

3. Evolution of the cervical spine

3.1. Prenatal development

3.2. Postnatal development

3.3. Congenital anomalies and developmental defects

4. Anatomy of the cervical spine

4.1. Anatomy of the vertebra

4.2. Cervical spine junctions

4.3. Muscles and fasciae of the cervical spine

4.4. Blood supply to the spine and spinal cord

4.5. Vertebromedullary topography

4.6. Topographical anatomy of the cervical spine

5. Biomechanics of the cervical spine

5.1. Kinematics of the functional spinal unit

5.2. Spinal cord and its physical properties

5.3. Stability of the spine

6. Diagnostics of cervical spine injuries

6.1. Clinical examination of patients with a cervical spine injury

6.2. Neurophysiological examinations

6.3. Imaging methods

7. Classifications of cervical spine injuries

7.1. Classifications of injuries to the upper cervical spine and the craniocervical junction

7.2. Classifications of injuries to the lower cervical spine and the cervicothoracic junction

8. Surgical approaches to the cervical spine

8.1. Anterior surgical approaches

8.2. Lateral approaches

8.3. Posterior approaches

9. Implants used in the region of the cervical spine

9.1. Wires, cables

9.2. Screws

9.3. Anterior cervical plates

9.4. Cages

9.5. Posterior cervical plates and clamps

9.6. Rod-screw fixation systems

10. Injuries to the upper cervical spine

10.1. Occipital condyle fractures (C0)

10.2. Atlanto-occipital dislocation of C0-C1 (AOD)

10.3. Injury to the atlas (C1)

10.4. Atlantoaxial dislocation of C1-C2 (AAD)

10.5. Injury to epistropheus (C2)

10.6. Combined C1-C2 fractures

10.7. Occipitocervical fixation

11. Injuries to the middle and lower cervical spine

11.1. Treatment of the lower cervical spine injuries

11.2. Injuries to the middle and lower cervical spine treated with a monocortical plate system

11.3. Hyperextension injury

12. Injuries to C7-T3 cervicothoracic junction

12.1. Our own group of patients with internal fixation of the cervicothoracic junction

13. Cervical spine injuries in children and adolescents

13.1. Anatomical and biomechanical specific features

13.2. Types of injuries

13.3. Neurological lesions as part of the injury

13.4. Lethal consequences of spinal injuries

13.5. Posttraumatic deformities of the spine

13.6. Methods and treatment results

13.7. Our own group of pediatric patiens with spinal injuries

14. Cervical spine injuries in patients older than 65 years

14.1. The authors' own group of patients over the age of 65 years with a cervical spine injury

15. Kyphotic deformities of the cervical spine

15.1. Etiology, mechanism of the development and clinical finding

15.2. Diagnostics

15.3. Treatment

15.4. Our own group of patients with cervical spine kyphosis

16. Conclusion and acknowledgements

Abbreviations

Index



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